Ну я категорически не согласен, что эти тупоголовые птички были умнее боргиен, и если те достигали размеров медведя что могла с ними сделать птица?
У этих "птичек" был череп длиной 75см!!! Я видел лично его в музеях, и могу сказать, что он производит сильное впечатление!
Borhyaena is an extinct genus of South American marsupial.
Borhyaena was a large, bear-like marsupial predator of up to 1.50 m (5 ft) long. A typical borhyaenid, it had flat feet and a heavy build. Borhyaena probably hunted from an ambush as its short legs did not allow it to run very fast.
family of extinct South American marsupial mammals occurring from the Late Paleocene Epoch into the Pliocene (from about 63.5 to 5 million years ago). It is named for the genus Borhyaena; hyena-like specimens of this genus, found in early Miocene rocks of Argentina (26,000,000 years old), had large skulls and heavy crushing teeth. Not all borhyaenids, however, were hyenoid....
Borhyaena was as large as the modern brown bear, and its skull and dentition resembled the modern hyena. They were the dominant predators of their habitat until the arrival of other large predators in the shape of large terrestrial birds.
For example, the structure of the Thylacine jawbone suggested that it may be related to an extinct South American carnivorous marsupial, Borhyaena. Ancient DNA studies show instead that the Thylacine is related to the living Australian marsupials. The superficial similarities in jaw structure of the Thylacine and Borhyaena are the result of convergent evolution.
RЁ¦sumЁ¦ / Abstract
The description of a partial skull of a dog-like marsupial (Borhyaenoidea, Marsupialia, Mammalia) referred to Notogale and of the further-prepared ear region of the only known skull of Sallacyon hoffstetteri, both from the Deseadan (late Oligocene) of Salla-Luribay (Bolivia), allows a revision of the basicranial characters of the Borhyaenoidea. These new data provide the opportunity of a reconsideration of the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily, which was mainly diagnosed with dental characters, in some cases, belonging to the same functional complex. Several previous hypotheses on the affinities of the Borhyaenoidea are considered and close relationships with the North American Stagodontidae or with the essentially Asian Deltatheroida are regarded as unlikely. The Borhyaenoidea are included within the Didelphimorphia and could represent the sister group of the Didelphoidea. The key-synapomorphy of the superfamily is the contribution of the medial process of the squamosal to the construction of the lateral and dorsal wall of the alisphenoid hypotympanic sinus. Forty-five characters distributed among 13 taxa are analysed with the branch and bound search of Paup 3.1.1. Three of the taxa are the outgroup which includes the genera, Didelphis, Pucadelphys, and Andinodelphys. The borhyaenoids included in the analysis are genera represented by reasonably well preserved cranial remains (Mayulestes, Sallacyon, Notogale, Cladosictis, Sipalocyon, Lycopsis, Borhyaena, Prothylacynus, Paraborhyaena, and Thylacosmilus). The analysis confirms the monophyly of the Hathliacynidae (Notogale, Cladosictis, Sallacyon, and Sipalocyon) but definitely excludes Mayulestes from the family. Although the parsimony analysis included Sallacyon within the Hathliacynidae, this position is not very securely established because the basicranium of the only known skull is incomplete. Borhyaena and Prothylacynus belong to the monophyletic family Borhyaenidae, which does not include the genus Lycopsis. Paraborhyaena (Proborhyaenidae) and Thylacosmilus (Thylacosmilidae) are sister groups.
Lycopsis longirostris, a middle Miocene Colombian borhyaenoid, is compared functionally with early Miocene borhyaenoids from Patagonia and the Tasmanian thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus, the largest Recent marsupial carnivore. The postcranium of Lycopsis shows a mosaic of features. Although several features characterizing the long bones are consistent with a primarily terrestrial mode of life (e.g., a straight ulna and tibia, a semi-digitigrade forefoot), other features like the development of mm. spinati, pectoralis and biceps and the pseudo-opposable pollex indicate that the forelimb had manipulative and grasping abilities. On the hindlimb, the poorly stabilized lower ankle joint, the short metatarsals, and the well-developed hallux also preclude fast running. When compared to three early Miocene borhyaenoids, Prothylacinus patagonicus, Cladosictis patagonica, and Borhyaena tuberata, which form a morphological gradient from the most arboreally-adapted taxon to an incipient cursorial one, Lycopsis is placed between Cladosictis and Borhyaena. Lycopsis was more likely an ambush hunter than a pounce-pursuit predator, stalking small-to medium-sized prey.
Сумчатые Большая советская энциклопедия
Наиболее ранние ископаемые С. известны из отложений нижнего мела Северной Америки. В Южной Америке С. появились в палеоцене. Среди южноамериканских ископаемых С. известны гиганты размером с медведя (Prothylacinus и Borhyaena). В Европе С. существовали с эоцена до миоцена. В Австралии известны с олигоцена.
Лит..: Соколов В. Е., Систематика млекопитающих, М., 1973; Жизнь животных, т. 6, М., 1971: Troughton Е., Furred animals of Australia, 9 ed., Sydney, 1967.
О. Л. Россолимо.